Damask: refers to a reversible figured fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibres, with a pattern formed by weaving.
Damasks are woven with one warp yarn and one weft yarn, usually with the pattern in warp-faced satin weave and the ground in weft-faced or sateen weave. Twill damasks include a twill-woven ground or pattern.
Damasks were one of the five basic weaving techniques of the Byzantine and Islamic weaving centres of the early Middle Ages.
Damasks seemed to become scarce after the ninth century outside of Islamic Spain, but were revived in some places in the thirteenth century. By the fourteenth century, damasks were being woven on draw looms in Italy. From the fourteenth to the sixteenth century, most damasks were woven in a single colour, with a glossy warp-faced satin pattern against a duller ground. Two-colour damasks had contrasting colour warps and wefts, and polychrome damasks added gold and other metallic threads or additional colours as supplemental brocading wefts. Medieval damasks were usually woven in silk, but wool and linen damasks were also woven.